To begin with, an index forecasting and early warning system of
dust-haze is supposed to be set up. Foundation optical observation
points should be established matching the satellite remote sensing
data and monitoring the optical thickness of aerosol should be
carried out as well. Meanwhile, set up observation stations to
observe the horizontal and vertical visibility for the direct
public service about dust-haze; carry out the detection of
atmospheric boundary layer for timely awareness of the relationship
between the characters of boundary layer like temperature inversion
and dust-haze; get to know about the effects made on the structure
of atmospheric boundary layer by industrialization and urbanization;
improve the accuracy of dust-haze forecasting and enhance the
ability to monitor and prevent the dust-haze.
Strengthen the surveillance of solar radiation and evaluate the
effects of dust-haze on agricultural production and climate changes,
etc. Only when the establishment of dust-haze forecasting system is
combined with dynamic controlling system of pollution discharging
and decision making system of controlling emissions from sources
of pollution, can dust-haze be effectively coped with. Concerning
the situations we know now, urbanization and industrialization are
main triggers of dust-haze, while one of the climatic features of
the appearance of dust-haze is that there is a stagnant area where
it happens. Some foreign developed countries implement dynamic regulation
and control of social production based upon various climatic conditions,
which is to adjust the total amount of pollution sources in essence.
For example, once the stagnant areas are detected somewhere in the
United States, all the industries will be controlled on gas waste
emission, while when the atmospheric condition is good and the air
can well spread, the emission is not limited.
Secondly, strict regulations on emissions of motor vehicle exhaust
and industrial gas should be enacted so as to remove or decrease
the harm dust-haze does to cities. At the same time, cities should
coordinate with each other in groups to prevent dust-haze. As a
regional phenomenon of climatic disasters, dust-haze requires
cooperation between regions to be dealt with. Only in this way,
can all the management work out.
At last, in urban planning, pay attention to the study of the
sinking distance of urban updraft reaching suburbs and lay out
the factories with much pollution beyond the sinking distance
to avoid the pollutants discharged by them flowing from near the
ground to the city; satellite cities should also be built outside
the urban heat island circulation to avoid mutual pollution.
The air passage should be reserved for the full consideration
of atmospheric diffusion conditions. Urban green space is
supposed to be increased to give full play to the environmental
benefits of smoke and dust removal, air filtration and environmental
beautification so as to purify the urban atmosphere and improve
the quality of urban air.
National standards for the main four kinds of atmospheric
composition of dust-haze include the aerosol mass concentration
with diameter less than 2. 5 micrometers, the aerosol mass
concentration with diameter less than 1 micrometers. There
are also regulations of aerosol scattering coefficient and
aerosol absorption coefficient. As long as one full index is
beyond limit, even if the visibility is more than 10 km,
it is also called dust-haze. The forecast level of dust-haze
is divided into four grades: slight, mild, moderate and severe.