It means a long-term trend of increasing drought. Aridification
is another kind of dry damage which is completely different from
drought disaster. However, there is a certain relationship between
aridification and dry damage, that is, with the development of
drought, drought will inevitably increase and intensify. Therefore,
upgrading the frequency and intensity of drought can be used as an
indicator of drought. Drought is manifested in the increasing number
of dry damage areas and the worsening of the disaster, which makes
the original pastoral desolation, ecological degradation, and even
into a desert.
With human economic development and population expansion, serious
water shortages phenomenon, which has also directly led to the
expansion of arid areas and the aggravation of the degree of drought.
The trend of drought has become a global concern.
Distribution of arid areas(1)
Generally, the area with annual precipitation less than 250mm is
called arid area, and the area with annual precipitation of 250-500mm
is called semi-arid area. Arid regions in the world account for about
25% of the global land area, mostly concentrated in the Saharan Desert
fringe of Africa, the Middle East and West Asia, western North America,
most of Australia and northwest China. The annual rainfall in these
areas is scarce and the evaporation capacity is large, agriculture
relies mainly on melting snow in mountainous areas or water from upstream
areas. Semi-arid areas in the world account for about 30% of the global
land area, including parts of northern Africa, southern Europe, Southwest
Asia, central North America and Northern China (Fig. 6-3). These areas
have less rainfall and are unevenly distributed, perennial drought or
even successive drought because of less rainfall and uneven distribution.
Firstly, China is located in the Asian monsoon climate region,
precipitation is not only seasonal and regional, but also varies
greatly from year to year. Winter-spring drought or spring drought
have the greatest chance and the longest duration in all parts of
the country. The frequency of drought is more than 40%, and it is
50% ~ 60% in south China and southwest China. The most serious is
the continuous drought in winter and spring, which is generally the
case in severe drought years.
Secondly, drought in China has obvious regional characteristics.
Northeast China has less drought due to stable precipitation; the
precipitation in Huang-Huai-Hai area changes greatly and the drought
frequency is more in each season of the year; drought in South China
mainly occurs in winter, spring and autumn; southwest China is mainly
concentrated in winter, spring and summer.
Figure 6-3 Distribution of arid and semi-arid regions in the world