Secondary earthquake disaster refers to all kinds of disasters, such as landslides, mud rocks, floods that can threat existence of human and livestock caused by strong earthquakes.
The secondary earthquake disaster can be divided into two broad categories:
One is the social level, such as road leads to the formation of a traffic paralysis, fire disasters caused by the fracture of gas pipes, drinking water contamination caused by the damage of wewage, interruption of communicaiton cuased by the damage of telecommunication facilities and plague, gas pollutions, bacteria pollution and radioactive pollution and so on.
The second is the natural level, such as landslide, collapse and fall of rocks, debris flow, ground crack, ground surface subsidence, sand liquefaction and other secondary and geographical disasters. If the earthquake occures in deep ocean, it may cause a tsunami.
The main consequence is the faults and cracks in the ground. The surface faults of large earthquake often stretch for tens to hundreds of kilometers, often with obvious vertical and horizontal dip seperation, which can reflect the tectonic movement features at the source point. However, not all surface faults are directly related to the movement o the source because they can also be the secondary influence caused by earthquake wave, especially the area that has thicker sediments, slope edge, river and road cracks. This is often the result of terrain factors, which loose and split under the condition of shaking due to lacking relying on the side of the rock surface soil.
The shaking of the earthquake causes the sinking of topsoil and shallow groundwater rose to the surface ground along ground fissures, which formed sandblasting phenomenon. Large earthquake can transform local tepography, or rise, or settle and caused the cracking of roads, the twisting of railway and the breaking of bridges.
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