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Taking preventive measures and emergency shelter is indispensable

2023-04-06  |   Editor : houguangbing  

Data show that more than 70% of the large cities and more than half of the population in China distributed in the coastal and eastern areas where floods and earthquakes are serious. However, some cities have relatively weak disaster emergency response capacity, and many cities have basically no emergency shelter. Even if some places have built emergency shelter, but most of them are small number, small size, or inadequate publicity, and citizens do not know how to use them, which are nominal. In order to take preventive measures, China should build emergency shelters as soon as possible, so that to ensure the safety of people's lives and property.

Strengthening the construction of emergency shelter is an internationally effective measure to deal with and prevent natural disasters. In Japan, earthquake resistance and safety are the focus of building infrastructure such as highways, railways and parks. Many cities have government-designated "buffer zones" for shelter, and some of the city's greenbelt and street parks have "earthquake shelters" on their entrances.

Many buildings in Japan have evacuation maps, guide map shows where you are now, the escape route from a disaster, where you really can't get out and hide for help, where the fire extinguisher is.

Each of Tokyo's 23 districts has its own disaster prevention plan. Where to take shelter, where to get water, and walk on which street to take care of any broken glass that might fall, are all clearly marked on the shelter guide map.

Japanese usually have a strong sense of disaster prevention. When you come to a strange place, you will first observe the surrounding environment and observe the safe passage. In this way, we can keep calm and deal with all kinds of disasters.

Japanese families will prepare "disaster prevention bags," which are firm and durable, some with a certain fireproof and waterproof functions, containing water, compressed biscuits, flashlights, masks, gloves, medicines and other emergency supplies.

New Zealand strong earthquake: A magnitude 7.1 quake that killed nobody

A magnitude 7.1 earthquake assaulted Christchurch, the largest city on New Zealand's south island, at 4:35 am on September 4, 2010, as people slept. Epicenter of the earthquake was located at about 30km west of Christchurch, with a depth of about 20km, and was a shallow earthquake. The quake lasted about 40s, followed by 29 aftershocks of magnitude 3.7 to 5.4, which were felt throughout the south island and even in Wellington, the capital of the north island. The quake was the worst in New Zealand in nearly 80 years, causing extensive damage to buildings, roads and bridges, but no one died, only two people were seriously injured, one was hit by a fallen chimney and the other was severely cut by spattered glass, which was a miracle. In contrast to some countries, where the death toll is often in the dozens, hundreds or more, it is not a miracle but a myth. In the case of countries which assaulted by earthquakes in 2010, Haiti, suffered a 7 magnitude earthquake in January, with a death toll of at least 220 thousand; the massive 8.8 magnitude earthquake that assaulted Chile in February caused more than 500 people death; the 7.1 magnitude earthquake in Yushu, China, in April took more than 2,000 people lives away. Hopefully, this fact of zero death makes us think!

New Zealand is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Indo Australian plate, on average, more than 10,000 earthquakes occur each year, but less than 10 are destructive, and only about 150 are felt earthquakes a year, with few casualties. The last earthquake that causing someone death was the magnitude 7.1 earthquake in 1968, occurred in the west coast of South Island, killed three people. The last strong earthquake in New Zealand occurred on July 16, 2009, when a 7.8-magnitude quake assaulted the fjord area of the South Island, moving the southernmost part of New Zealand to Australia by nearly 12 inches ®, without causing any casualties.

A strong earthquake that has been prepared for 79 years.

The reason why New Zealand's strong earthquake no one dead is the strict regulations on building control which implemented by the New Zealand government. New Zealand learned a painful lesson from the 1931 magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Hawke's bay, which killed 256 people. Also because of the strong earthquake, the New Zealand government has formulated strict building codes. Therefore, the earthquake did not cause greater damage, which was undoubtedly a very important factor. In developing countries, buildings often failed to withstand shaking, collapsed when the earthquake occurred, but in Christchurch, only some old houses in the suburbs were damaged, and architectural structure of most houses were still intact. No doubt, this was the best and most successful verification of New Zealand's efforts to prevent earthquakes since 1931.

Although the earthquake has caused tremendous damage to the infrastructure of South Island, especially Christchurch, it has affected every family, including water and sewage treatment systems, roads, bridges and power supplies, but this earthquake created a "zero death" miracle, which mainly due to the stringent building control regulations enforced by the New Zealand government, which has very strict regulations on building safety standards and seismic capacity, as well as extremely severe penalties for substandard phenomena such as the "jerry-built" project. Despite the collapse of the external walls, the basic structure of the building is intact.

No deaths in New Zealand aside from the country's natural advantages of a sparsely populated area, the most important benefit is the effective earthquake resistance and disaster reduction system trial and error. New Zealand has installed structural isolation and damping device on some important buildings and bridges, and even on many historic buildings in the city. Anglican Cathedral was slightly damaged during the strong earthquake, because of the precautionary. When the earthquake occurs, the isolation device can effectively reduce the damage caused by the earthquake.

New Zealand government also attaches great importance to disaster prevention and mitigation education, so that the general public can understand how to deal with the earthquake to minimize the losses caused by the earthquake.

New Zealand's six major experience to ensure “zero death”

①Seismic isolation technique: All important buildings have isolation devices. New Zealand leads the world in seismic isolation technology. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, special rubber mats were used as base isolation. At present, some important buildings and bridges in New Zealand have adopted structural isolation and damping device.

②Aseismic building materials: Advocate wooden frame large glass light building. Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) is a special research institute for earthquake-resistant buildings, the wood frame, large glass and light-weight buildings designed by BRANZ are not expensive and widely accepted by the residents. Moreover, the superior aseismic performance of this kind of buildings was fully demonstrated in the 1987 South Island earthquake, which measured 6.7 on the Richter scale. Thereafter, with the vigorous advocacy of the New Zealand government, the light wood structure building pattern was widely promoted, at present, the low-rise and multi-storey residences in New Zealand mainly adopt this building pattern.

③Building quality: Perfection of building quality accountability system. New Zealand government strengthens legislation in building construction and strict quality control. Investors, designers and design drawings are specified in New Zealand's《Architectural law》and building code. Architects and designers can supervise construction. For the review of construction projects, 《Architectural Law》stipulates that investors entrust designers to design drawings and submit them to the relevant professional departments for examination, builders, designers and government inspectors should be held accountable for the problems of the buildings, so as to urge relevant personnel to ensure safety.

④Disaster prevention education: People basically know how to avoid earthquakes. Government attaches great importance to disaster prevention and mitigation for citizens. Over the years, New Zealand's National Civil Defense Department has printed propaganda materials on defensing various specific disasters, including disaster identification, prevention, and how to save themselves and each other, all citizens have one set. After a long period of publicity and popularization, ordinary people in New Zealand have common sense of how to deal with earthquakes.

⑤Defense mechanism: The state sets up a three level government emergency response system. New Zealand government attaches importance to disaster prevention work, and the disaster prevention mechanism is effective. Government carries out comprehensive management of various natural disasters, sets up the Ministry of Civil Defense specially, and disaster prevention and mitigation agencies from the central government to the regional and local governments. Once a major national natural disaster occurs, the state enters a state of emergency, the National Civil Defense General Headquarters will be launched immediately, and the regional and local civil defense command centers will be put into operation immediately.

⑥Earthquake insurance: Earthquake insurance has been hailed as the most successful disaster insurance. New Zealand earthquake insurance system has been praised as the most successful disaster insurance systems in the world, its main feature is that the country establishes a multi-channel catastrophe risk dispersal system in accordance with its own national conditions in the form of law, and disperses catastrophe risk as far as possible by combining government with market. Earthquake risk response system consists of three parts, including the earthquake committees, insurance companies and insurance associations, which are subordinate to government, commercial and social institutions. Once disaster occurs, the earthquake committee is responsible for legal insurance compensation for damages; insurance company is responsible for damages beyond legal liability according to insurance contract, while insurance association is responsible for initiating the contingency plan.

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