Data show that more than 70% of the large cities and more than
half of the population in China distributed in the coastal and
eastern areas where floods and earthquakes are serious. However,
some cities have relatively weak disaster emergency response
capacity, and many cities have basically no emergency shelter.
Even if some places have built emergency shelter, but most of
them are small number, small size, or inadequate publicity, and
citizens do not know how to use them, which are nominal. In order
to take preventive measures, China should build emergency shelters
as soon as possible, so that to ensure the safety of people's
lives and property.
Strengthening the construction of emergency shelter is an
internationally effective measure to deal with and prevent natural
disasters. In Japan, earthquake resistance and safety are the
focus of building infrastructure such as highways, railways and
parks. Many cities have government-designated "buffer zones" for
shelter, and some of the city's greenbelt and street parks have
"earthquake shelters" on their entrances.
Many buildings in Japan have evacuation maps, guide map shows
where you are now, the escape route from a disaster, where you
really can't get out and hide for help, where the fire extinguisher
Each of Tokyo's 23 districts has its own disaster prevention plan.
Where to take shelter, where to get water, and walk on which street
to take care of any broken glass that might fall, are all clearly
marked on the shelter guide map.
Japanese usually have a strong sense of disaster prevention. When
you come to a strange place, you will first observe the surrounding
environment and observe the safe passage. In this way, we can keep
calm and deal with all kinds of disasters.
Japanese families will prepare "disaster prevention bags," which
are firm and durable, some with a certain fireproof and waterproof
functions, containing water, compressed biscuits, flashlights,
masks, gloves, medicines and other emergency supplies.
New Zealand strong earthquake: A magnitude 7.1 quake that killed nobody
A magnitude 7.1 earthquake assaulted Christchurch, the largest city on
New Zealand's south island, at 4:35 am on September 4, 2010, as people
slept. Epicenter of the earthquake was located at about 30km west of
Christchurch, with a depth of about 20km, and was a shallow earthquake.
The quake lasted about 40s, followed by 29 aftershocks of magnitude 3.7
to 5.4, which were felt throughout the south island and even in Wellington,
the capital of the north island. The quake was the worst in New Zealand
in nearly 80 years, causing extensive damage to buildings, roads and bridges,
but no one died, only two people were seriously injured, one was hit by a
fallen chimney and the other was severely cut by spattered glass, which was
a miracle. In contrast to some countries, where the death toll is often in
the dozens, hundreds or more, it is not a miracle but a myth. In the case of
countries which assaulted by earthquakes in 2010, Haiti, suffered a 7
magnitude earthquake in January, with a death toll of at least 220 thousand;
the massive 8.8 magnitude earthquake that assaulted Chile in February caused
more than 500 people death; the 7.1 magnitude earthquake in Yushu, China, in
April took more than 2,000 people lives away. Hopefully, this fact of zero
death makes us think!
New Zealand is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Indo Australian
plate, on average, more than 10,000 earthquakes occur each year, but less
than 10 are destructive, and only about 150 are felt earthquakes a year,
with few casualties. The last earthquake that causing someone death was
the magnitude 7.1 earthquake in 1968, occurred in the west coast of South
Island, killed three people. The last strong earthquake in New Zealand
occurred on July 16, 2009, when a 7.8-magnitude quake assaulted the fjord
area of the South Island, moving the southernmost part of New Zealand to
Australia by nearly 12 inches ®, without causing any casualties.
A strong earthquake that has been prepared for 79 years.
The reason why New Zealand's strong earthquake no one dead is the strict
regulations on building control which implemented by the New Zealand
government. New Zealand learned a painful lesson from the 1931 magnitude
7.8 earthquake in Hawke's bay, which killed 256 people. Also because of
the strong earthquake, the New Zealand government has formulated strict
building codes. Therefore, the earthquake did not cause greater damage,
which was undoubtedly a very important factor. In developing countries,
buildings often failed to withstand shaking, collapsed when the earthquake
occurred, but in Christchurch, only some old houses in the suburbs were
damaged, and architectural structure of most houses were still intact. No
doubt, this was the best and most successful verification of New Zealand's
efforts to prevent earthquakes since 1931.
Although the earthquake has caused tremendous damage to the infrastructure
of South Island, especially Christchurch, it has affected every family,
including water and sewage treatment systems, roads, bridges and power
supplies, but this earthquake created a "zero death" miracle, which mainly
due to the stringent building control regulations enforced by the New Zealand
government, which has very strict regulations on building safety standards
and seismic capacity, as well as extremely severe penalties for substandard
phenomena such as the "jerry-built" project. Despite the collapse of the
external walls, the basic structure of the building is intact.
No deaths in New Zealand aside from the country's natural advantages
of a sparsely populated area, the most important benefit is the
effective earthquake resistance and disaster reduction system
trial and error. New Zealand has installed structural isolation and
damping device on some important buildings and bridges, and
even on many historic buildings in the city. Anglican Cathedral was slightly
damaged during the strong earthquake, because of the precautionary. When the
earthquake occurs, the isolation device can effectively reduce the damage
caused by the earthquake.
New Zealand government also attaches great importance to disaster prevention
and mitigation education, so that the general public can understand how to
deal with the earthquake to minimize the losses caused by the earthquake.
New Zealand's six major experience to ensure “zero death”
①Seismic isolation technique: All important buildings have isolation
devices. New Zealand leads the world in seismic isolation technology.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, special rubber mats were used as
base isolation. At present, some important buildings and bridges in
New Zealand have adopted structural isolation and damping device.
②Aseismic building materials: Advocate wooden frame large glass light
building. Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) is a
special research institute for earthquake-resistant buildings, the
wood frame, large glass and light-weight buildings designed by BRANZ
are not expensive and widely accepted by the residents. Moreover,
the superior aseismic performance of this kind of buildings was fully
demonstrated in the 1987 South Island earthquake, which measured 6.7
on the Richter scale. Thereafter, with the vigorous advocacy of the
New Zealand government, the light wood structure building pattern was
widely promoted, at present, the low-rise and multi-storey residences
in New Zealand mainly adopt this building pattern.
③Building quality: Perfection of building quality accountability system.
New Zealand government strengthens legislation in building construction
and strict quality control. Investors, designers and design drawings are
specified in New Zealand's《Architectural law》and building code. Architects
and designers can supervise construction. For the review of construction
projects, 《Architectural Law》stipulates that investors entrust designers
to design drawings and submit them to the relevant professional departments
for examination, builders, designers and government inspectors should be
held accountable for the problems of the buildings, so as to urge relevant
personnel to ensure safety.
④Disaster prevention education: People basically know how to avoid
earthquakes. Government attaches great importance to disaster prevention
and mitigation for citizens. Over the years, New Zealand's National Civil
Defense Department has printed propaganda materials on defensing various
specific disasters, including disaster identification, prevention, and how
to save themselves and each other, all citizens have one set. After a long
period of publicity and popularization, ordinary people in New Zealand
have common sense of how to deal with earthquakes.
⑤Defense mechanism: The state sets up a three level government emergency
response system. New Zealand government attaches importance to disaster
prevention work, and the disaster prevention mechanism is effective.
Government carries out comprehensive management of various natural disasters,
sets up the Ministry of Civil Defense specially, and disaster prevention
and mitigation agencies from the central government to the regional and
local governments. Once a major national natural disaster occurs, the state
enters a state of emergency, the National Civil Defense General Headquarters
will be launched immediately, and the regional and local civil defense
command centers will be put into operation immediately.
⑥Earthquake insurance: Earthquake insurance has been hailed as the most
successful disaster insurance. New Zealand earthquake insurance system has
been praised as the most successful disaster insurance systems in the world,
its main feature is that the country establishes a multi-channel catastrophe
risk dispersal system in accordance with its own national conditions in the
form of law, and disperses catastrophe risk as far as possible by combining
government with market. Earthquake risk response system consists of three
parts, including the earthquake committees, insurance companies and insurance
associations, which are subordinate to government, commercial and social
institutions. Once disaster occurs, the earthquake committee is responsible
for legal insurance compensation for damages; insurance company is responsible
for damages beyond legal liability according to insurance contract, while
insurance association is responsible for initiating the contingency plan.