Survivors who rely on honeycomb holes in collapsed buildings may survive more than 2 to 3 weeks.To achieve the highest efficiency, search and rescue applications are done by an independent team.
When using a search method (search for dogs, acoustic instruments) that can not directly confirm the existence of a survivor (such as visual, dialogue), the search area must be strictly inscribed by two independent searches and may remain quiet The use a fixed, eye-catching symbols on the search area has been identified to save valuable time and manpower. In the search for human resources, resources, time is limited, you must search the location of the priority to choose. Each rescue site must be designated one person responsible for coordination, unified command, full staff scheduling.
search and rescue dog search search and rescue dogs unit is usually by the two search and rescue dogs and their dog trainer and a captain. Task to carry out the initial general deployment of two search and rescue dogs to participate in search and rescue units. Rescue dog unit captain of the search area of the terrain, structural characteristics of the analysis, marking all the key information, and the results submitted to the headquarters. A search and rescue unit found the survivor of the suspicious area, the captain should be the team removed from the area. While sending a unit to search the area again. If the second search and rescue unit confirms that the region has survivors, mark the area. The captain then reports the results to the search and rescue operations headquarters for follow-up rescue operations.
Technology search mainly uses sound waves, vibration monitoring equipment to search. If necessary, you can also use optical fiber equipment, infrared thermal imaging (if conditions permit) and other equipment. Should use high-power speakers or other equipment, to the survivors of the ruins propaganda. Survivors should send a duplicate signal (such as a continuous knock on the wall), the search area should be kept quiet.
Subsequently, an instrumental searcher should be sent to confirm the suspicious area, and the results will be submitted to the search and rescue operations as soon as possible. Light-guided imaging equipment can accurately locate the survivors of the ruins of holes, with the use of concrete hammer or drill is particularly effective. The search and rescue personnel can drill holes on the surface of the collapsed building and detect with the light guide imaging device. The device can clearly see the survivors, usually without the need for a second confirmation. Operators should analyze the terrain and structural characteristics of the area and indicate the available information for subsequent follow-up operations.
Manual search In the affected area to deploy manual search, directly to the holes and narrow areas to search, looking for survivors. The search staff can also be queued to listen to the sound of the survivors. Use high-power speakers or other propaganda equipment to the trapped survivors and give instructions, the search staff carefully list and mark the sound of the area.
The search strategy is used to determine the priority of large-scale searches. The following two strategies can be used to determine how to arrange the search resources reasonably.
The area to be searched is partitioned. Depending on the size of the disaster area and the amount of disposable resources, the search area may be divided by city block or other distinguishing criteria. Resources are allocated to each area to be searched by area. This approach is more applicable to smaller areas of the search area, but for larger areas (such as a city or part of the city), because of limited resources, not practical.
For different types of affected areas set search priority. Areas where survivors are most likely to be determined (depending on the type of building) and the largest number of potential survivors (based on the use of the affected building) should be given priority. Such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, high-rise buildings, composite residential areas and office buildings, should give priority to search and rescue operations.
Earthquake search operations are usually configured two search units, each can be used as a starting team or follow-up team, which continue to alternate tasks.
A search unit should include: captain, search and rescue dog experts and technical search staff. Captain: The leader of the unit, summarize the situation and record information, communicate with the headquarters, describe the details and make recommendations. Search and rescue dog expert: the implementation of search and rescue dogs search and found the survivors to further confirm. Technical search personnel: Perform electronic equipment search. Medical First Aid: Provide medical first aid for survivors and involved in search and rescue personnel. Structural experts: assess building stability and suggest reinforcement recommendations. Toxic substances handling experts: monitor the search area and the surrounding air condition, assess, identify and mark the threat of poison. Rescue experts: assist in search units, including drilling for electronic surveillance equipment (cameras, cameras) and setting up monitoring measures.
Implementation of the operation
Assessment of structures in the affected area, including building structures, estimates and system reports; identification of survivors; identification of hazards and identification of potential hazards such as suspended structures, structural instability or potential Collapse area, harmful substances, gas, water and electricity. Hazardous areas should be marked and regulated with warning lines; basic air conditions within and around the affected area should be assessed. Summarize information on search areas and list all issues requiring attention, report search findings to search and rescue operations headquarters and make recommendations on search and rescue priorities. 3. necessary equipment hammer drill, rock drill; electronic monitoring equipment (cameras, cameras); monitoring equipment; air monitoring equipment; marking materials (such as chalk);
Unified command of each rescue site must specify a person responsible for coordination, unified command. The person in charge of the scene has the right to mobilize the whole person, can be deployed across the deployment of rescue personnel. Large search and rescue operations sometimes require two or more rescue teams to cooperate. The search and rescue operations headquarters should appoint a team leader to be the full responsibility (personnel appointments must be communicated to each search and rescue personnel) and equipped with a safety officer. It is necessary to get help from someone other than a rescue team or organization. These help can come from military personnel, utility contractors, heavy equipment operators and so on. The search and rescue operations headquarters should coordinate their access to these external resources in a timely manner. In order to be safe and improve search and rescue efficiency, it is necessary to develop and comply with the requirements of personnel access to rescue sites. At the same time, rescue experts should strictly manage the entire affected areas, including the closure of all water, electricity, gas and other basic facilities, identify and mark high-risk areas, identify the rescue area, remove unrelated personnel, arrange the venue for equipment and so on.
The scene of the search and rescue operations can be divided into five stages:
Assessment of collapsed areas: possible survivors in the search area (on the ground or buried); assessing structural stability; assessing water and electricity facilities and closing facilities to ensure safety.
Quickly and safely transfer ground survivors.
Search and detect all voids and holes in the collapsed building to discover possible survivors. This stage can use the propaganda equipment; only trained search and rescue dogs or search and rescue personnel can be holes or can enter the space for search and rescue.
After identifying the survivor position, use special tools and techniques to selectively remove the building wreck.
Large-scale clean-up. Usually in all known survivors are safe transfer before the implementation of large-scale clean-up.
In the rescue team should have building structural experts.
Hazardous Materials Specialists should assist the search and rescue team in the identification of dangerous goods, assessing the surroundings of the building and the internal air condition and subsequent reassessment.
Medical experts should provide medical assessment, the implementation of treatment of survivors. The search and rescue personnel should ensure that medical personnel are exposed to survivors as soon as possible, which may require temporary suspension of search and rescue work.
Heavy equipment specialists should advise on the use of cranes, heavy handling equipment and other equipment. In addition, they must act as liaison officers between search and rescue personnel and equipment operators to ensure effective communication between the two sides.
The technical information specialist records the progress of the rescue operation.
Search and rescue team leaders need to integrate other people, including utilities, law enforcement, military and volunteers.
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