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Macroscopic and microcosmic anomalies before earthquakes

2018-11-19  |   Editor : houguangbing  

Macroscopic anomalies before earthquakes

Include groundwater anomalies, biological anomalies, geosound anomalies, earthlight anomalies, electromagnetic anomalies, meteorological anomalies and so on.

Groundwater anomalies

Groundwater includes well water, spring water, etc. Main anomalies are murky, bubbling, weltering to flower, warming, discoloring, changing taste, sudden rising, sudden falling, deformation of wellbore, sudden exhaustion or gushing of springhead, etc. People summed up the proverb of well water changes before the earthquake:

Well water is a treasure, earthquake has presage. Rainless weather and the spring is turbid, arid climate and the well is bubbling up. Water level fluctuatuation is large, weltering to flower and bubbling. Some change color, some change taste.

Biological anomalies

Some organs in many animals are particularly sensitive, which can know some disaster events ahead of humans. For example, jellyfish can predict storms in the ocean, and rats can avoid mine collapses or harmful gases in advance, etc. Physical and chemical changes accompanied with earthquakes (vibration, electricity, magnetism, meteorology, abnormal radon content in water, etc.) can often stimulate certain sensory organs of some animals and produce abnormal reactions. If the gravity varies in a region, some animals can sense it through their balance organs; An abnormal vibration may be detected by the auditory organs of some animals. Before the earthquake, the underground rock strata had been moving slowly day by day, showing a state of creeping, and there was strong friction between the fault planes, therefore, it is believed that a low-frequency sound wave could be generated on the friction fault planes only a few times to more than ten times per second, which is lower than human hearing. Humans need more than 20 sound waves per second to feel them, while animals do not. Highly sensitive to sound animals are horrified when they feel it, with the result of abnormal phenomena such as winter snakes will coming out of the hole, fish jumping on the water surface, pigs and cows jumping out of housings, dogs crying and wolves howling, etc.There are many kinds of abnormal animals, such as livestock, poultry, burrowing animals, hibernating animals, fish, etc.

Animal anomalies before earthquakes are listed below.

Cows, horses, donkeys are frightened, don't get into stables, do not eat, rampage and barking, gang war, run away without reins, thrust against the ground, paw at the ground, run suddenly while walking.

Pigs don't get into stables, do not eat, rampage and barking, arch ring, escape out of stables.

Sheep don't get into stables, do not eat, rampage and barking, escape out of stables, annoyance of stables.

Barking dogs, crying, smelling the ground and pawing the ground, biting, running in a mess, carrying puppies to remove, police dogs don't listen to instructions. Cats are frightened, carrying kittens up to the trees.

Rabbits don't eat grass, hooting and trespassing in the nest, stampeding out of nests.

Ducks and geese do not enter the water at daytime, don't come in henhouses at night, do not eat, heeling the masters, screaming, soaring.

Chickens don't come in henhouses at night.

Doves don’t come into nests, inhabit out of houses, frighten suddenly and fly.

Herds of rats go out of holes, as drunkers dazing, do not afraid of people, stampeding, carrying little rats to remove.

Hibernating snakes frozed and died in the snow, the numbers increasing, gathering together.

Crowds of fish floating, crazy swimming, jumping out of water, aquarium fish jumping around, heads and tails blooding, jumping out of cylinders, squawking, stagnation, death.

Toads go out in groups, even running into the streets.

People also have a few words of doggerel in abnormal animal situations:

Before the earthquake animals have a warning, group detection and defense are very important.

Cattles, sheep, and horses do not go into stables, pigs do not eat and dogs bite.

Ducks do not enter the water noising on the shores, chickens fly up to trees and scream loudly.

Snakes go out of holes at a world of ice and snow, rats running with mouselets.

Rabbits bouncing and bumping, panic-stricken fish jumping out of water.

Swarms of bees moving noisily, frightened doves do not return to nests.

Every family is watching, report abnormity quickly.

In addition, some plants also have abnormal reactions before earthquakes, such as unseasonal germination, flowering, fruiting or large areas withered and unusually exuberant.

However, it is not certain that an earthquake will occur if the plants and animals are abnormal, which is why difficult to predict earthquakes in advance.

Meteorological anomalies

Before the earthquake, meteorological phenomenon often appeared abnormal. It is mainly sultry before earthquakes, people anxious and restless, prolonged drought or continuous rain, diffuse yellow fog, dim sunlight, raging strange wind, and so on. For example, floating clouds are extremely long rays in the sky, and the location of ray center is the location of seismic center, so that the ray can be easily observed.

Ground sound anomalies

Ground sound anomalies refer to the sound coming from underground before earthquakes. The sounds like gunfire and thunder, as well as the loaded train is driving , gales agitate, fierce winds blow violently or growling mountain torrents, surgent soldiers, motors roaring, thunder or dull thunder, broken tree cracking or the roaring of crawler tractorsand tanks, tearing cloth and so on. When an earthquake occurs, since the longitudinal wave radiates from the source and propagates along the ground, air vibrates and makes sound. Due to large velocity but weak potential of the longitudinal wave, people only hear its sound, but do not feel it until shear wave arrives, which needs a transverse wave to move. Therefore, the epicenter area often has the record of "Before each earthquake, interior sound, like the earth and atmosphere bubbling, such as boiling water expand inside tripod ". If in the epicentral area, earthquakes of magnitude 3 can often hear the ground sound. Because of sound source medium, energy, transmission medium, distance, people's experiences and mental states are different, together with the reflection and refraction of different terrain and ground objects, people naturally describe the earth sound in a strange and distinctive ways. Knowledge of the earth sound is good for emergency avoidance and disaster prevention.

Ground light anomalies

Ground light anomalies refer to the phenomenon of luminescence occurring on the ground or in the sky before or at the same time of an earthquake, which has different shapes and colors. Before the earthquake, the light from the underground came from various colors,can be seen rare mixed colors in daily life, such as silver-blue, white-purple and so on, but mainly red and white; It has different shapes, such as banding, spherical, columnar, diffuse, also can be lightning, fireball, schistose, strip, columnar or searchlight, scattering, etc. Generally, the scope of land light is large, usually occurs within hours or minutes before the earthquake and lasts for a few seconds. There are many kinds of colorful luminescence in Haicheng, Longling, Tangshan and Songpan earthquakes in China. Ground light often accompanies with natural phenomenon such as earthquakes, landslides, subsidence, sand-blasting, water-gushing, air jet, etc. It often migrates regularly along a fault zone or an area, and synchronizes with other macro-and micro-anomalies. Its genesis is always closely related to crustal movement. It is controlled by geological conditions, surface and atmospheric conditions.

The luminous form of ground light is different, which can be divided into low-altitude atmospheric luminescence, corona discharge luminescence and underground overflow material flow luminescence. Some of the ground light do not move, others move in space, or with the extension of time changes constantly. Ground light, like the earth sound, can also serve as an alarm for the immediate arrival of an earthquake. When we see the ground light, take decisive measures immediately to mitigate the damage.

Ground light and ground sound are the light and sound emitting from the underground before or during an earthquake, and they are one of the important basis for imminent earthquake prediction. Before the earthquake, the sound of the earth rumbled for an instant, ground light was shining, the great earthquake was coming, and we must act decisively and swift action to avoid risks.

It was reported that during the 1976 Tangshan earthquake of magnitude 7.8, 129 express trains from Beijing to Dalian passed by the earthquake center of Guye Station near Tangshan City at 03:41am, filled with more than 1400 passengers, the driver found three bright lights flashing like thunder and lightning in the night sky ahead, he used infrequent damper brake resolutely and calmly, carried out emergency braking, then a major earthquake followed, but the train stopped steadily, avoiding the danger of derailment and overturning, ensuring the safety of the train and the vast number of passengers.

Earth atmosphere anomalies

Earth atmosphere anomalies refer to the fog coming from the ground before the earthquake, also known as earth atmosphere fog or ground fog. This kind of fog, with white, black, yellow and other colors, sometimes colorless, often appeared in a few days to minutes before the earthquake, often accompanied by a strange tastes, sometimes accompanied by sound or high temperature.

Ground motion anomalies

The ground motion anomalies refer to the shaking of the ground before earthquakes. It is a well-known phenomenon that the ground vibrates violently during an earthquake. But before earthquakes occur, sometimes feel the ground shaking, which is different from the earthquake, very slow and can’t be recorded by seismographs, but many people can feel it. The most prominent ground motion anomaly occurred before the Haicheng earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on February 4, 1975, from late December 1974 to the end of January 1975, 17 earthquakes occurred in Dandong, Kuandian, Fengcheng, Shenyang and Xiuyan.

The earth's surface anomalies

The earth's surface anomalies include plunking-up floor, ground crack, and ground subsidence anomaly. Plunking-up floor is bulging on the ground. About half a year before the Luhuo earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on February 6, 1973, a plunking-up floor appeared on a lawn in Tuba area of Ganzi County. It was shaped like an upside-down iron pot, about 20 cm high, and there were intermittent cracks around it, the plumping up area disappeared several days later and repeated many times until the earthquake occurred. Similar anomalies to plunking-up floor include ground crack, subsidence, etc.

Electromagnetic anomalies

Electromagnetic anomalies refer to the abnormal appearance of household appliances such as radios, televisions and fluorescent lamps before earthquakes. The most common electromagnetic anomaly is radio malfunction, and self-illumination of fluorescent lamps before an earthquake is more common in the north. A few days before the Tangshan earthquake of magnitude 7.8 on July 28, 1976, many radios in Tangshan and its adjacent areas were out of order, the sounds were loud and small, sometimes absent, the frequency modulation was inaccurate, and sometimes there was noise continuously.

Electromagnetic anomalies also include abnormal operation of some electrical equipments, such as abnormal microwave station, interference in radio factory, failure of electronic alarm clocks, etc.

Once abnormal natural phenomenon are discovered, do not easily draw a conclusion that an earthquake is about to happen, do not lose your head, instead, it is necessary to make clear the time, place and relevant situation of abnormal phenomenon, protect the scene, report to the government or the earthquake department, and the professionals of the earthquake department investigate and verify and get to the bottom of the matter.

Microcosmic anomalies before earthquakes

The human senses cannot detect the earthquake anomalies, which can only be measured with special instruments, called the microscopic anomaly of earthquakes, mainly include the following categories.

Seismic activity anomaly is related to the magnitude of the earthquake. Although there are not many large earthquakes, many small and medium earthquakes, studying the characteristics of small and medium earthquakes may help people predict the occurrence of large earthquakes in the future.

Topographic change is abnormal before the earthquake, the crust in the vicinity of the epicenter may undergo minor deformation, and rock strata on both sides of some faults may undergo minor displacement, with the help of precise instruments, this very weak change can be detected, analyzing these data can help people predict the occurrence of future large earthquakes.

During the geophysical changes in the process of earthquake preparation, some changes may occur in the physical properties of rocks in and around the focal area, it is also helpful to predict earthquakes by measuring gravity, geoelectricity and geomagnetism changes in different areas with precise instruments.

The changes in subsurface fluids, groundwater (well water, spring water, water contained in subsurface rock strata), oil and gas, and other gases may be generated and stored in subsurface rock strata, all of which are subsurface fluids. Measuring the chemical composition and some physical quantities of underground fluids with instruments and studying their changes can help people predict earthquakes.

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