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Post-disaster reconstruction in Japan, Pakistan and the United States

2018-11-23  |   Editor : houxue2018  

Japan: Construction of disaster prevention parks

At 5:46 am on January 17, 1995, a strong earthquake of magnitude 7.3 occurred in Hanshin Prefecture, Kobe, Japan, many people were buried in their dreams by collapsed houses, more than 6430 people were killed. In view of the problem that food and water supply could not be delivered to the earthquake area immediately after the Hanshin earthquake, the government of the disaster-stricken areas of Japan had strengthened the function of disaster prevention in parks, after the earthquake, these parks would become the focus of temporary evacuation of victims, and relief materials should also be delivered there in time. Hyogo County was the main disaster area of the Osaka-Shenzhen earthquake, the local government invested 40 billion yen (about 2.6 billion yuan) to build 163 acres of parks to avoid disasters. In these parks, in addition to a large temporary shelter, there were underground reservoirs, food storage rooms and other facilities for self-rescue after the disaster. There were 16 such disaster prevention parks in Hyogo Prefecture.

In the process of post-disaster reconstruction, Japan has improved its ability to deal with earthquakes. Since 1996, the Japanese government has revised the《Building benchmark method》three times in a row to raise the seismic benchmark of all kinds of buildings to the highest level; Except for wooden structure residential buildings, the commercial buildings are resistant to a magnitude 8 earthquake with a duration of more than 100 years.

Pakistan: Strict quality control of housings

On October 8 2005, a magnitude 7.6 earthquake struck Pakistan, Afghanistan and Northern India, killing 73,000 people, injuring nearly 130,000 people, leaving 2.8 million homeless, and several villages were razed to the ground.

The earthquake, housing materials and quality problems were the main causes of such serious casualties. Therefore, the government of Pakistani- administered Kashmir had formed a technical committee to check the quality of all reconstructed houses in the capital Muzaffarabad. Every displaced person who rebuilt a house could find the committee with the house drawings and asked them to help find problems in the design. In addition, parts of Muzaffarabad's urban areas were located in landslide-prone areas, and the government had banned the victims from rebuilding houses near rivers and slopes, which places would gradually become green belts around cities in the future.

The USA: No buildings on seismic belts

In 1933, after the earthquake in Long Beach, California, the California government passed two bills, put forward the mandatory requirements on building seismic resistance.

The blue book of《Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary》clearly proposes the three level of performance standards for buildings: ①Buildings should be able to withstand low-level earthquakes: ②The main structure is not damaged under moderate earthquake action: ③Under the strong earthquake action, the building will not collapse and ensure the safety of life. In 1981, Los Angeles, the United States, mandatory requirements in the form of a statute: homeowners must reinforce old masonry buildings, one of the main measures was to use steel bars to lock gables, enhanced seismic capacity. Besides, it was stipulated that suburban houses should be single-storey or two-storey wooden structures, which could reduce the damage of house collapse in the event of major earthquakes.

The United States also has strict restrictions on buildings in the earthquake zones. In 1972, the《Active fault method》was enacted in California. The method stipulated "Special investigation zones" with seismic hazards, which restricted the development plans for the residence of persons concerned in the zones; Secondly, the understanding degree of active faults was defined in terms of "very active", "accurate location", "potential and recent active", and indicated how far away from the fault can be built. Experts said that although earthquake prediction was a worldwide problem, scientists could use the most advanced scientific means to predict earthquake risk zones and try to avoid building houses in these zones.

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