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Self and mutual rescue after great earthquakes

2018-11-21  |   Editor : houguangbing  

A large majority of people buried during the earthquake survived by self and mutual rescue. According to statistics, the relationship between rescue time and rate is: 95% in half an hour: 81% in the first day, 53% in the second day, 36.7% in the third day, 19% in the fourth day and 7.4% in the fifth day.

How to find and rescue the buried people?

(1) Utilizing rescue dogs and the determination of trace carbon dioxide 1 can be very convenient for the location of the person in distress.

(2) Listen to the cries, groans and percussion of the trapped people. The way to listen is: lie down, closely to your ears when quiet at night, and tap (or whistle) while listening.

(3)Observing the situation of ruins overlapping and pressing, especially whether there is living space where people live; also observing whether there are any traces or bloodstains of people crawling in the ruins.

(4) Analyse the original structure, use, material, level and collapse condition of the collapsed building, and judge the survival condition of the buried people.

How to do if you are pressed?

(1) After the earthquake, aftershocks will continue to occur, and your conditions may deteriorate further, you should try to improve your conditions, stabilize and try to escape

(2)Try to avoid the delicate collapses, suspenders or other dangerous materials above the body.

(3)Remove movable debris such as broken bricks and tiles, expand the space of movement, and pay attention not to reluctantly move, so as to prevent the surrounding debris from collapsing further.

(4) Try to support the broken walls with bricks, wooden sticks and so on, so as to prevent them from being buried again during aftershocks.

(5) Do not use indoor facilities, including power and water supplies etc.or open fire; when you smell gas, poisonous odor or too much dust, try to cover your mouth and nose with wet clothes.

(6) Do not yell, keep up your strength, and use percussion for help.

Self rescue principle

(1) Try to cover the mouth, nose and head with wet towels, clothing or other cloth, prevent inhalation of dust and suffocation.

(2) Try to move your hands and feet as much as possible, remove dirt from your face and objects on your body.

(3) Supporting the weight above the body with moving objects around to avoid further collapse; enlarging the space of movement and keeping enough air.

(4)When several people are buried at the same time, they should encourage each other, plan together, cooperate with each other and take rescue actions when necessary.

(5)Search for and open up passageways, try to escape from danger, and move towards the brightest, safer and more spacious areas.

(6)For the time being, it is impossible to escape from danger, look for water and substitutes, try to prolong survival time and wait for rescue.

(7)Keep your physical strength, do not shout for help aimless. In the quiet surroundings, or when someone is outside, knock on the wall with bricks, iron pipes, etc. to convey information to the outside world. When someone is not far away, call for help again.

(8) In the mountains, we must keep away from the steep cliffs so as to avoid landslides and collapses; we should also leave the great water channels and the two sides of the river, where are prone to larger landslips or collapses.

Mutual rescue principle

(1)Save places where more buried people firstly, that is to say, more before less.

(2) Rescue the nearest people firstly, that is to say, first near then far.

(3) Save the people who are easy to save first, that is to say, from easy to difficult.

(4) Rescue slight injuries and strong people firstly, expand rescue teams, that is to say, the first light after.

(5) If medical staff are buried, priority rescue and increase rescue force.

(6) First save lives, then save people. In the Tangshan earthquake, a rural woman in order to save more people, each saved a person, only their head exposed, so that they can breathe, and then immediately to save others, as a result, she saved dozens of people in a very short time.

How to ensure his safety when digging the buried people?

(1) Using tools to dig buried objects, when approaching the buried people, cannot dig with sharp tools.

(2) We must pay special attention not to destroy the original supporting conditions, so as not to cause new damage to the buried people.

(3) In the process of digging, the enclosed space should be communicated with the outside world as soon as possible, so that the buried people can breathe fresh air.

(4) When the dust is too much in the process of digging, can spray water to dust fall, so as to avoid the suffocation of rescuers and savers.

(5) In the process of digging, take water, food, or medicine to the buried people to enhance their vitalities.

How to rescue and care?

(1) First, expose the head, quickly clean the dust in the mouth and nose, prevent asphyxia,and then expose the chest and abdominal cavity, if there is asphyxia, artificial respiration should be carried out immediately. Cannot dig with sharp tools.

(2) For survivors buried in ruins longer time, transport drinking water firstly, properly strengthen the support above the buriers to prevent the new collapse of the heavy objects above them in the rescue process. Then dig while supporting, pay attention to protecting the eyes of survivors, cover the eyes with dark cloth after being rescued, avoid strong light stimulation.

(3) When the buried time is long and it is difficult to rescue, we can try to transport drinking water, food and medicine to the buried people to maintain their lives.

(4) When a buried person is unable to come out, inquire、observe and determine the injury carefully;For a person with cervical and lumbar injuries, do not lift him rigidly, three or four people hold the head, back, buttock and legs of the injured, put him on a rigid stretcher or door plank and fix him with cloth tapes.

(5) The buried people with limb fractures or joints damage, should use local materials, splint is fixed with sticks, branches, cardboard and so on. Expose the end of injured limbs to observe the circulation of blood when fixing.

(6) When moving a patient suffering from dyspnea, he should use prone position and turn his head to one side, so as not to cause suffocation.

(7) For those critically ill survivors who are still alive, they should be treated on the scene as far as possible, and then rushed to the hospital.

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