How to reduce the damage caused by earthquakes? Earthquake-resistant
buildings are the most direct way to reduce earthquake losses. Improving
public knowledge of disaster prevention and mitigation is the most
For many years, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Education
have been popularizing knowledge about earthquakes and self-protection in
earthquake disasters to school students. At the beginning of each semester,
California elementary and secondary schools require students to prepare an
earthquake emergency kit for the school to unified storage, the contents
include necessary medicines, solid food and contact with parents and relatives
in case of accident.
Every year, elementary and secondary schools in Iran will hold training
activities for one or two days to deal with earthquakes, understand the
theory and practice of earthquakes deeply. Such training activities are
arranged uniformly by schools, usually arranged on campus or in parks.
In addition, all teaching staff in the school should receive relevant
earthquake knowledge education.
Japanese schools establish classes specializing in teaching them emergency
knowledge, such as how to do when disasters come, and so on. Some elementary
schools often hold earthquake drills to teach children not to panic, protect
heads, avoid it in a calm and orderly manner when an earthquake occurs:
Some schools also let children feel the earthquake by using the "experience
car" shaking the simulated earthquake.
Under the mechanism of taking precautions and early warning, the Japanese
have formed a strong sense of crisis. Because of earthquakes can cause gas
pipe burst or even fires, the Japanese will immediately shut down their
kitchen fire and open the doors and windows that can escape if the ground
is perceived to be shaking.
Japan hosts exhibitions and seminars on disaster prevention and relief
regularly, sometimes also use special disaster prevention facilities,
let the public experience the feeling when the disaster occurs, practice
how to escape and save themselves. The Tokyo Fire Department's Disaster
Prevention Museum has a simulated seismic chamber that can realistically
simulate the shaking of houses during an earthquake. Instructors will
teach visitors the right way to take refuge, such as turning off the gas
switch when possible, and then taking the right posture to get under
the table quickly. After the explanation is completed, everyone can
enter the earthquake site and practice self-help.
September 1 is Japan's disaster prevention day. On this day, large-scale
disaster prevention exercises are organized around the country, one of
which is how to organize or participate in disaster relief when a major
earthquake occurred in a metropolis like Tokyo. With alarm bell ringing
and frequent practice, many Japanese can calmly rescue themselves from
danger when the earthquake comes.
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake made us know Zhiping Ye, the principal of
Sangzao middle school in An county, Sichuan province. Since 2005, Sangzao
Middle School has organized an emergency evacuation drill every semester.
Wait until a particular day, class exercises or student rest, the school
will suddenly loudspeaker shout: Whole school emergency evacuation! Each
class's evacuation route is planned by the school, each classroom has two
front and rear doors, students in the front row are evacuated from the
front door, while those in the rear row are evacuated from the back door，when evacuating, two classes share one staircase, each class must be
arranged in a single row, which passage each row takes, and the position
of each class evacuating to the playground is also fixed. Students in
classrooms on lower floors are required to run faster, while those on
higher floors are required to run slower, in order to prevent overcrowding
in stairwells and blocking escape routes.
The principal Zhiping Ye also asked for the teacher's position. Teacher
does not leave after class, but should stand in the right place at the right
time, In his opinion, the appropriate time is: after class, exercise between
classes, lunch and dinner, evening self-study and emergency evacuation,
which is the maximum flow of people in the teaching building: proper place,
he thought, was the staircase turning on each floor. Accidents are most likely
to happen around corners, which requires teachers to maintain order.
Owing to many exercises in peacetime, the teachers and students of the
University have withstood the test of "actual combat" after the Wenchuan
earthquake, more than 2,200 students and hundreds of teachers rushed to
the playground from different teaching buildings and classrooms, standing
unharmed in class and taking one minute and 36 seconds.