The World Health Organization defines a disaster for any event that
can cause damage to the facility, serious economic losses, casualties,
health conditions and deteriorating health conditions that have exceeded
the capacity of the event community and have to seek special assistance
outside the community , it can be called a disaster. The United Nations
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction has defined disasters
as: disasters are events and phenomena that cause natural or man-made
consequences of harm to humans and human society. Broadly speaking,
all the phenomena of destruction and harm to human life, production
and life and property are called disasters.
It can be seen that the disaster is caused by the disaster source
(or disaster source), disaster carrier and disaster relief body composed
of three parts. The occurrence of all disasters, it is necessary to have
the incentive of disaster, but also the carrier and the disaster of the
disaster. For example, an earthquake, due to the crustal vibration or dislocation,
causing landslides, ground subsidence, causing casualties and housing collapse,
the earthquake is a disaster source, soil or crust is a disaster carrier,
people and housing is the disaster-bearing body. On the contrary,
if the earthquake occurred in the desolate island or desert,
no casualties and property damage, it will not be called disaster.
Disaster is based on the occurrence of all kinds of disasters, causes,
characteristics, and classification of subjects for the study.
But also includes disaster prevention, forecasting, monitoring, countermeasures,
and post-disaster relief, assessment, reconstruction and other contents.
Disaster is a comprehensive and emerging interdisciplinary. The current international is
also more popular. The discipline covers a range of disciplines and categories
such as astronomy, geography, geology, history, archeology, meteorology, chemistry,
industry, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, architecture, economy, administration,
law, psychology and news. Disaster is an interdisciplinary discipline developed in
the past 20 years. It is a comprehensive discipline devoted to natural disasters
and man-made disasters and their prevention and control. China published in 1992,
the national standard "subject classification and code" (GB / T 13745-92) in the formal
"disaster science" as a discipline.
At present, Disaster Science has gone from a single subject to multidisciplinary
collaboration, from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary development.
In fact, at present both at home and abroad are carrying out disaster science research,
including natural and social aspects.