El Nino phenomenon, also known as El Nino ocean current, is a
climatic event caused by the imbalance after the interaction of
ocean and atmosphere in a large area of the Pacific equatorial
Normally the monsoon currents in the Tropical Pacific travel
from the Americas to Asia, keeping the surface of the Pacific
Ocean as warm as the inner and bringing tropical rain around
Indonesia. But this pattern get disturbed once every 2 ~ 7 years,
leading to the reversal in wind direction and ocean currents.
Then as the thermal currents on the surface of the Pacific Ocean
turn eastward to the Americas and take away the tropical rain by
the way, El Nino appears.
The basic features of El Nino are the abnormal rise in the temperature
and level of sea water and the formation of a warm current flowing
southwards. It turns the cold waters of eastern Pacific into warm
waters, causing tsunamis, torrential rain, droughts in some areas
and excessive rainfall in others.
The whole process of El Nino is divided into occurrence
period, development period, maintenance period and
The name "El Nino" derives from Spanish with the meaning
as "holy baby”. In the early 19th century, fishermen
from Ecuador, Peru other Spanish-speaking countries in
South America found that every few years, from October
to March, there would be a warm current moving southwards
along the coast together with an obvious rise in the
temperature of the water on the surface of the sea.
The east coast of the Pacific Ocean in South America is
originally dominated by the cold snap from Peru, along
with the movement of fish stock making the Peruvian
Fishery one of the three major fishing grounds in the
world. When this warm current appears, the fishermen
will meet a great calamity as a result of the massive
death of the cold water fishes.
Because the worst of this phenomenon happens around
Christmas, the afflicted and helpless fishermen call
it the son of god, El Nino.