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The content of the natural disaster emergency management in China

2018-10-22  |   Editor : houguangbing  

As a comprehensive management system, the natural disaster emergency management can be divided into three stages: the first is pre-disaster risk management, prevention and reduction of natural disasters, disaster preparedness and early warning; and then is the emergency response in disaster; the last one is the reconstruction after the disasters. The main content including:

Risk management

Disaster risk management is the priority area of natural disaster management and also is the focus of attention in the world under the background of global climate change. Disaster risk refers to the possibility of bad result, or the possibility of foreseeable loss of life, property, economic, social and environmental damage because of the natural or man-made disaster-causing factors interacting with fragile environment.

We need to insist the theory of “people first, prevention first” in the process of disaster risk management, conduct general surveys on the types, frequency, intensity and losses of major natural disasters in key regions and conduct assessment according to the types of natural disasters.

We need improve the disaster reporting system and share the information of disaster. On the basis of potential risk and information of disaster, we can make use of geographical information system to carry out risk regionalization of natural disasters such as rainstorm, flood, freeze, typhoon, drought and gale, to compile a risk map of high risk and key area for all kind of disasters in China, to figure out the regional differences in risk distribution of various natural disasters so that we can compile a defense plan for natural disaster combined with the features of local natural disasters.

According to the disaster risk regionalization and early warning results, we can evaluate the potential threat of disasters, the vulnerability in the area and the level of a natural disaster in the area.

Through the establishment of disaster risk database, evaluation index, models, we can carry out risk monitoring and identification and transfer the risk properly. After the disaster, according to the existing insurance policies and systems, we need to design reasonable compensation mechanism and scientific compensation for loss and determine the insurance rate. Besides, we can explore and set up ways to transfer disaster risks which suitable to China’s national condition actively so that the risk resistance capacity of the whole country and the whole society can be improved.

Prevention and reduction work of natural disasters

Facing the severe situation of disaster, our government has formulated the policy of disaster prevention and reduction with “prevention first, prevention, resistance and rescue combined”. The government stressed the initiative in deal with the work and suggested that we can improve the overall capacity of disaster resistance by consolidating the foundation before the disaster.

The work of prevention and reduction of disaster can be roughly divided into two aspects: engineering measures and non-engineering measures. Engineering measures mainly include flood prevention, earthquake prevention, wind and damp resistance, desertification prevention, ecological construction and a series of work for disaster prevention and infrastructure development; non-engineering mainly include the formulation of laws and regulations on disaster prevention and reduction, the formulation of comprehensive disaster reduction planning, the construction of demonstration community, the promotion of education training, the research and development of scientific and technology and international corporation.

The preparedness for disaster

The preparedness for disaster refers to the effective safeguard measures against natural disasters. It mainly includes the construction of emergency response plans for natural disasters, the construction of management system for disaster information, the construction of emergency command system, the construction of emergency team, the construction of disaster relief fund mechanism, the construction of emergency material reserve system, the construction of emergency facility and the construction of scientific platform. The preparedness for disaster is a long-term systematic project, which requires coordination, optimization and integration. Through the continuous accumulation, development and innovation, the national overall capacity for disaster resistance will be improved.

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