Due to the development of science and technology and
the attention the countries all over the world pay to
El Nino, scientists have deepened the understanding of
this abnormal phenomenon of climate through a series
of scientific studies like forecast models, ocean observation,
satellite reconnaissance, and the ocean-atmosphere coupling.
First of all, it is recognized that the physical process
appeared in El Nino is the result of the interaction
between the ocean and atmosphere, that is, the change
of ocean temperature is directly related to the atmosphere.
So, in the 1980s, scientists started calling El Nino "Enso"
phenomenon. Secondly, the warming of the tropical oceans
not only happens in Chilean waters but also in the eastern
Pacific and the western Pacific. Wherever it occurs, it
can quickly cause significant abnormality in global climate.
It is the strongest signal of climate changes, which brings
severe droughts, floods and other natural disasters in many
parts of the world.
According to the relation between El Nino and the change
rule of solar activity in the last century, scientists
found that the period from the decreased phase to the
valley value phase is a time of frequent El Nino, when
there are 2 to 3 times of it.
El Nino, the kettle of climate, which started boiling at
the meeting-point of spring and summer in 1997, was
considered as the most severe one in recent hundreds
of years with its rapid speed, ferocious intensity and
great harm and was reported as one of “the top ten
international news" by the People's Daily and other
news media. Close attention was paid to it by senior
policymakers , environmentalists and economists around
As early as the beginning of the formation of El Nino,
the relevant departments in China began to study the
possible impacts of it on agriculture. It was pointed
out by advisory experts that the ecological, environmental
and climatic effects of El Nino as well as its impact on
the worldwide economy should not be ignored and should be
highly valued by relevant departments.
In the early days, people were very interested in the warm
current in eastern Pacific Ocean, for it often happened
around Christmas, and more importantly, it was related to
the local harvest year. In 1925, warm ocean currents were
seen near Peru, with up to 400 millimeters of rainfall in
the desert region in March the same year, compared with the
rainfall of less than 20 millimeters in the previous five years.
As a result, the desert became an oasis, covering almost
all of Peru with dense forage, sheep multiplied in number and
crops in barren areas. Although many birds were found dead
and marine creatures were destroyed, it was still believed
that the "holy baby" brought them a bumper year. Over the
past decades, there have been brand new explanations for El
Nino, especially for its impact on ecology, environment,
climate and even the world economy.
Based on meteorological data from recent 50 years, after
El Nino happens, there is a great chance of a warmer winter
that year and higher precipitation in southern China next
summer, while in south droughts cover a large area.
According to historical records, there have been 13 times
of El Nino in the world since 1950. The most severe of
which occurred in 1997 and lasts till now. Its major
performances are: from the north hemisphere to the south
hemisphere, from Africa to Latin America, the climate
became strange and mysterious, the places where it shoule
have been cool are scorching, heavy snow comes in warm
season, no rain drops in rainy season and the flood hits
during the dry season.
Scientists believe that El Nino is associated with the
worsening of natural environment as a direct result of
growing greenhouse effects. It is also because that human
beings ask too much from nature but seldom pay attention
to environmental protection.