The process of volcanic activity often causes many small or strong earthquakes. Earthquakes also often lead to volcanic activity. Of the 27 volcanic activities recorded in 1999, 14 occurred in just over two months after Turkish earthquake. The fundamental reason of volcanoes and earthquakes is the rupture of rocks caused by material movement in the earth's interior; astronomical factors such as the tide-generating force of the sun and moon also induce earthquakes, but the fundamental power is still the accumulation of energy in the earth's interior. Volcanic activities and earthquakes are twin brothers, during the period of frequent earthquakes from August to October 1999, volcanic activities also increased sharply, with a total of 17 volcanic eruptions occurring around the world.
Before volcanoes erupt, magma accumulates in large quantities underground and approaches the surface. At this time, some of the gases and water vapors in the magma are first released, among these odors, there are sulfur vapors and many sulfur-containing gases, so people can usually smell unpleasant odors.
Sulfur and silver combine to produce black silver sulfide, so before a volcano erupts, the surface of silver will turn black.
Similar to earthquakes, some animals show signs of restlessness. Approach the moment of the explosion, more gas and water vapor came out and looked like smoke. Some of these gases are poisonous, at the same time, the magma temperature is very high, when it accumulates underground, it raises the temperature of the topsoil above, these gases will make the sensitive animals flee after detection, and the animals with weak resistance will die from poisoning.
Although human sensory organs are not as sensitive as some animals, people can use precision instruments to observe and obtain information. For example, a special thermometer is placed underground to measure changes in land temperature; air samples can often be taken to analyze their composition; we can also use an instrument that is sensitive to detect the changes of gravity, to gather information about whether magma accumulates in large quantities underground, if magma underground increases, gravity increases there; sounds often emitted underground before volcanic eruptions can also be detected by scientific instruments.
It's a new way for scientists in New Zealand to predict volcanic disasters recently. In September 2001, Some New Zealand scientists announced that they had discovered a new way to predict volcanic disasters, that is, using sound waves from the earth's inner core to analyze the direction of the formation of crustal fissures and to predict the exact time of volcanic eruptions. These New Zealand scientists collected a lot of scientific data from the recent two large-scale eruptions of Mount Ruapehu in New Zealand, they found that before and after the eruption of the volcano, the sound waves in the earth's core showed regular changes, which were formed by the fracture of the rock layer below the surface. Cracks usually occur in the crust before a volcanic eruption, so that as long as people closely observe the direction of those cracks, they can predict the exact time of volcanic disasters in advance. However, scientists also point out that until more information is collected, the new method of predicting volcanic disasters can only be part of various forecasting techniques.
Before the eruption of volcanoes, underground magma was active, producing earth stress, which changed the ground fluctuation.
Ice and snow melting on volcanoes
Many tall volcanoes are perennially above the snow line, before the eruption, due to magmatic activity and rising ground temperature, melting ice and snow on the volcano predicted an eruption.
The volcano rumbled
The sound of magma and gas expanding before it bursts out of the crater indicates that an eruption is imminent.
Monitoring of water and geothermal temperature near volcanoes
The temperature of volcanoes generally rises before eruption, which can be predicted in advance by measuring the water temperature and ground temperature near volcanoes.
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