"ACTA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA "
hydrological geography, geographical environment, surface water, groundwater, water quality, Heilongjiang River
This article reviews the hydrological geography in the Heilongjiang River Basin from four aspects: geographical environment, surface water, groundwater and the water quality. Studies on geographical environment can be illustrated on climate change, lakes and wetlands, watershed regionalization and watershed development. In recent years, the Heilongjiang River Basin has witnessed warming climate, its river basin has abundant lakes and wetland resources,its river basin has numerous protected areas and protected objects on both sides, its reservoirs play a key role for its water resources development and utilization. Studies on surface water can be made on runoff characteristics and flood characteristics. The Heilongjiang River can be divided into seven tributaries and one main stream. Atmospheric circulation anomalies are the direct cause for consecutive torrential rain over the main stream in 2013. Studies on groundwater can be conducted on hydrogeology, groundwater level and trans- boundary aquifers. The Heilongjiang River Basin can be divided into nine hydrogeological zones. The change of the groundwater level has its unique characteristics. Thus, trans- boundary aquifers need to be studied in the future. Studies on water quality can be illustrated on surface water quality and groundwater quality. Prevention and cure work against the polluted water need to be strengthened, groundwater control measures and emergency treatment programs need to be put forward as soon as possible. Finally, hot topics related to surface water quality and groundwater quality are discussed.