Practice indicates that some debris flows can be avoided. So, how exactly can we avoid the damage of landslides? It can be done in the following aspects:
Firstly, when we build bridges and culverts, we should cross over from the top of the debris flow, allowing mudslide to be excreted below it to avoid debris flow. This is a common measure for railway and highway traffic departments to ensure traffic safety.
Secondly, when we construct tunnels, burrows or aqueducts, we'd better make debris flow pass under it so that the mudslide can cross over it from the top. This is another major project of railway and highway in debris flow area.
Thirdly, build some certain protection constructions to the bridge, tunnels, roadbed and riverways along mudslides concentration mountains in areas that the debris flow happens frequently to resist or eliminate scouring of subject building, impact and the harm of lateral erosion and burying of debris flow. Protective buildings mainly include: slope protection, retaining wall, bank and groyne etc.
Fourthly, improve the flow potential of landslide and increase the drainage capacity of bridges and other buildings so that the debris flow can be discharged smoothly according to design intention. The drainage works include the diversion dike, chute and the beam embankment.
Fifthly, build some project to hinder and retain to control the solid material of debris flow and heavy rain, flood flow, weakening the flow of debris flow, water run-off and energy to reduce the scouring and impact of construction projects in downstream of debris flow as well as the harm of engineering measures such as burying.
The blocking measures include: slag dam, silting field, support engineering, and flood diversion project. For the prevention and control of debris flow, a combination of measures is often adopted, which is more effective than single measures.
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