China's basic principles of disaster prevention and reduction:
to prevent the main anti-anti-integration
Disaster Reduction Engineering
Three - North Shelterbelt System Project
Is a magnificent ecological construction project being
implemented in the north of China.
It is a great feat in the history of forestry
development in China.
It is the largest scale and the longest time to transform
nature in human history. (Banners, cities and districts)
in 13 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities)
in the north of China.
The scope of construction is from Binxian in Heilongjiang
Province to Uygur Autonomous Region in the west of Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous Region. Autonomous Region Uzbeili Yamaguchi,
with a total area of 406.9 million square kilometers,
accounting for 42.4% of land area,
close to half of China's mountains and rivers.
In accordance with the overall planning of the project,
the project is divided into three phases, eight projects,
73 years to complete,
a total of 35.6 million hectares of afforestation.
In the protection of existing forest vegetation,
on the basis of artificial afforestation,
closing hillsides and silviculture and aircraft sowing
afforestation and other measures,
the implementation of Joe, irrigation, grass combination,
with film, network, multi-species, multi-forest combination,
A large-scale shelterbelt system with complete functions,
reasonable structure and stable system improved
the forest coverage rate from 5.05% to 14.95%.
The desertification land was effectively managed,
soil and water loss was basically controlled,
the ecological environment and the people The production and
living conditions of the masses have been fundamentally improved.
Protective Forest System in the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River
Is the third after the North Shelterbelt Project,
China's shelter-forest system in another grand
ecological construction project. West Qinghai Plateau,
Sichuan Basin, east to the Jianghan Plain,
Hunan and Jiangxi hills,
along the Yangtze River on more than 140 cities and counties.
The general goal of the project is to plant trees in the
upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River in 30 to 40 years,
and increase the forest area by 500 million mu to solve
the problems of water and soil loss in the middle and upper
reaches of the Yangtze River, flood control and drought relief,
and alleviate the agriculture, forestry, fuel and feedstuffs.
Tensions, and promote the Yangtze River Basin economic development.
Works in two phases. The first phase of the project was carried
out from 1989 to 2000 to focus on the restoration and increase
of forest vegetation, with a view to curbing soil erosion.
The scope of governance includes 145 key counties in the
nine provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Sichuan,
Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi. The total construction
scale is 100 million mu. After 2000 for the second phase.
The construction of shelterbelt system in the upper and middle
reaches of the Yangtze River is an ecological project aiming
at restoring and expanding the forest vegetation as the center
and restraining soil and water loss. The project involves 645
counties in 13 provinces in the upper and middle reaches of
the Yangtze River, with a total area of 1.6 million square
kilometers, or 16.6 percent of the total land area. The total
afforestation area of 20 million hectares, in three phases:
a project (1989 to 2000) planning afforestation 6.67 million hectares;
the second phase (2001-2010) planning afforestation 6 million hectares;
three projects (2011 ~ 2050 ) Planning afforestation of 7.33 million hectares.
The State Planning Commission in 1989 approved the upper reaches
of the Yangtze River shelter forest a project planning.
The first phase of the project covers 145 counties in nine
provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi with a total area of 34.08 million hectares.
Afforestation area of 6.67 million hectares. After the completion
of the first phase of the project,
the forest area of the project area will increase from 100 million
mu to over 200 million mu.
The forest coverage rate will increase from nearly
20 percent to over 40 percent,
and the basic treatment area of soil erosion will
reach 74,000 square kilometers.
And other forest products can be more than 50
billion yuan of direct economic benefits,
in particular, can be obtained immeasurable
ecological and social benefits.
Coastal Shelterbelt Project
China 's mainland coastline of more than 18,000 km.
Due to the alternation of land and sea, climate change,
leading to typhoons, floods, drought, sand and sea fog,
low temperature dry heat and other natural disasters occur frequently,
resulting in tens of billions of economic losses each year.
In the last decade of the last decade, due to storm surges
and other natural disasters caused by the direct economic losses
of up to 213.4 billion yuan. At the same time,
China's coastal provinces and autonomous regions distributed
more than 70% of large and medium-sized cities and 125 million people,
in 2004 to create a total GDP of 9.45 trillion yuan,
accounting for 69.3% of the country. With the rapid economic and
social development and the warming of global climate,
the frequency of natural disasters in coastal areas is getting
higher and higher, and the losses are also increasing.
It is imperative to comprehensively strengthen the coastal
shelterbelt system and strengthen the coastal areas to prevent
natural disasters. Dandong City,
Liaoning Province is China's coastal defense forest construction
of the northernmost, is the leader of green long queue.
Natural Forest Protection Project
Including 734 counties and 163 forest bureaus in 17 provinces
(autonomous regions and municipalities) in the upper reaches
of the Yangtze River, the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow
River and the key state-owned forest areas in the northeast
and Inner Mongolia. Yangtze River Basin Three Gorges reservoir
area as the upper reaches of the six provinces and cities,
including Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Hubei, Tibet.
Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi,
and Henan provinces in the Yellow River basin,
which is bounded by Xiaolangdi.
Northeast Inner Mongolia and other key state-owned forest areas in five provinces,
including Inner Mongolia, Jilin,
Heilongjiang (including the Greater Xing'an Mountains), Hainan,
Xinjiang. Natural Forest Protection Project area of
forest land area of 1023 million mu,
of which natural forest area of 846 million mu,
accounting for 53% of the national natural forest area.
In 2000-2010, the implementation of the project objectives:
First, the effective protection of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River,
the upper reaches of the Yellow River 9.18 million mu of existing forests,
reducing forest resource consumption of 61.08 million cubic meters,
reduced commodity production of 12.39 million cubic meters.
By 2010, new forest area of 220 million mu,
of which the new forest area of 130 million mu,
the project area of forest coverage increased by 3.72 percentage points.
Second, the Northeast, Inner Mongolia and other key state-owned forest
area of 7.515 million cubic meters of timber production reduction,
so that 495 million acres of forests have been
effective management and protection,
48.4 million surplus workers were properly diverted and resettlement,
forestry enterprises to achieve the strategic transfer and
industry Structure of reasonable adjustment,
into the track of sustainable management.
Beijing 's Sand Control Project in Beijing
Approved by the State Council,
one of the six key forestry ecological projects.
The project area covers 75 counties in Beijing, Tianjin,
Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia,
with a total land area of 460,000 square kilometers,
including 100,000 square kilometers of desertified land.
Over the past few decades,
with the continuous increase of population,over-reclamation,
overloading grazing and firewood firewood and other
man-made acts of sabotage intensified,
resulting in the desertification of the region become more serious.
In view of this situation, the State Forestry Administration,
the State Planning Commission, the Ministry of Agriculture,
the Ministry of Water Resources and other departments proposed
that the implementation of the project should follow the
"construction and protection of both" principle,
pay attention to play ecological self-repair function.
According to the plan, the project area to implement the "three forbidden",
the project area will complete the retreat
return n cultivated land forest 2012 mu,
supporting the barren hills and wasteland afforestation 19310000 acres,
26650000 acres of closed hillside afforestation, fencing enclosure 4190 mu,
85260000 acres, Construction of livestock shed 2.86 million square meters.
Source: Atlas of China's Natural Disaster System